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Meadowe in volume 6 of Thurloe's State papers

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6 47, 85 Meadow, agent at Lisbon. 19 Feb-10 Mar 1656/7 Mr. William Birde to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. xlvii. p. 137.

Right honnourable,
May it please your honnour, that my last was in Dezember, wherein breifly gave an accompt of affaires heere; and though I doubt not but that our confull doth it largly by every packett, yet in obedience to your honnors comands, I presume in these to acquainte you with what of importans came lately from Spaine, where that counfell endeavours to worke out by pollicy and bloody (though darke) designes what force cannot effect. To which ende (there is secrett intelligens) that they have bin tamperinge with persons in power heere, that kinge sendinge grants to some for them to sett downe what titles of honnor they please to accept or annuall gratuity they will receive; upon what prepounded as to the betrayinge this kingdome, the earle of Sure Dom John de Costa, generall of all the forces in this country, was one, unto whom these great proffers were made, which (as is reported) he discovered in the counsell of warr; and the 16th of this instant returninge here from court in his coach (though well accompanied with servants) yet two cavalheers on horsebacke came behind him, his coach beinge glazed, and discharged at his heade and backe two blunderbusses laden with bulletts, which tore his coach all to peices, and, as God would have it, at that pressent he was layd downe in the sayd coach to ease his wounded leg, by which means miraculously escaped an eminent danger, the persons not to be found, though strickt dilligens is used thereabouts. It's to be feered persons of honnor are ingaged in this soe secrett a designe, which argues the Spaniards ernest and close endeavours for the subvertion of this kingdome, where he well knowes the gentry are too ambitious and envious against one another; and it's to be feered he hath too many freinds amongst them. The earle of Miras power is much envied, though he acts with much pollicy and discretion; and if his cholericke disposition put noe demurr in the proceedings of affayres, they will goe well. He hath and doth dayly shew his readines to comply with the articles of peace. The freedome of these ports will bee of much importans unto our fleete for a recruite after bad weather, at which the Spaniard is much enraged, and endeavour he will to prevent itt. I presume the confull hath given an accompt upon what grounds they heere deferred publishinge the peace, which they say all desire may be done, and the articles rattified in this king's name, though the contrary is knowne; for I understande from a person of honnor, that they are affrayd to doe it, seeringe the inquisition and clergy, who are generally of the Spanish faction, and wold be glad to lay hold on any occasion to put the people in an uproare. They hope his highnes will mitigate the articles in dispute at mr. Meadowe's beeinge heere; but what grounds they have for such hopes not knowne.

The fleete in Spaine (which will not passe 25 to 30 sayle) will speedily be ready to depart for the West-Indyes (where the face of assayres begins to looke with a sad countenans, as they write, for want of recruites) but I hope ours will prevent them. Colunia is the place designed for their returne; but I question not, but there will be a tymely prevention for there hindrans. In what I may be any wayes serviceable unto your honnor, may please to command me, who am

Your honnor's humble servant,
William Birde.

From Lisbon the 19th of Feb. 1657. [N. S.]


The conde de Mira to the protector.

Vol. xlvii. p. 317.

Serenissime domine,
Doloris magnitudo ob excessum serenissimi regis, heu nuper nostri, at nunc inter beatos, adeo vehementer afflixit animum meum, ut calamum è manu excusserit hactenus, celsum vestræ infaustum nuncium referre properantem. Unicum nobis in gravissima jactura solatium superest, nempe regimen ac tutela serenissimæ reginæ, cujus præstantissimis virtutibus, non votum modo securitas publica, sed ipsius voti robur assumpsit. Quas inter dotes singularis elucet affectus ac studium germanam pacem ac societatem sarctam tectamque servandi inter Anglicam nostramque nationem, in quo illa nihil consiliis amissi conjugis inferior est; immo dabit operam, ut in dies amicitia novis utrinque commodis & beneficiis provehatur. Quare à celsitudine vestra peto, eâ veneratione & amore, quem præ me fero, certum hominem hic designare velit, qui à Philippo Meadowe leviter delibata sedulo transigat ex usu vestræ nostræque reipublicæ, quo maturius & armorumque utrorumque gloria, & hostium clades innotescat. Christophorus Vuayren, harum lator, qui pacis inter utramque rempublicam primordio interpres fuit, affatim suggeret quidquid hic adjungere poteram, ut eadem pax, ac societas æternum perennet. Interim Deum rogo, ut celsitudo vestra, Magnæ Britanniæ columen, incolumis diu sit.

Ulyssip. 10 Kalend. Martii m. d. c. lvii.

Celsitudinis vestræ
Comes Odemiranus.

103, 119 to be sent into Denmark. 16-17 Mar 1657 Embassador Nieuport to Ruysch.

Vol. xlviii. p. 83.

My lord,
In the beginning of this week, I thought fit to visit the lord secretary of state, and to recommend unto him the furthering of the marine treaty, as also to receive an answer upon my memorandum mentioned at large in my last. His lordship said, that I had undoubtedly understood with what important affairs the government had been busy since the last conference; and that he must acknowledge, that the delays were not only thereby occasioned, but that it was the only cause. That it was easily to be apprehended, how much the issue of such deliberations did concern this government, yet that he would report to his highness, what I had proposed to him; and yesterday his honour sent me word, that he hoped to get an opportunity to come to speak with me; but it is probable he will hardly be able as yet to spare so much time. Mr. Meadows, who was last in Portugal, signified to me to day, that he was to go for Denmark within two or three weeks from the lord protector, and that he was desirous to come to salute me; but understanding I had been let blood to day, he deferred his visit till next week.

Westminster 16 March 1657. [N. S.]

W. Nieuport.


Mr Bradshaw, resident at Hamburg, to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. xlviii. p. 219.

Right honourable,
I am right glad to understand by your honor's letter this day received, that the officers of the armie have soe amply assured his highnesse of their good affection and adherence to him, soe necessary in the transactions you have in hand, which I trust the Lord will issue to the great good of the state. I shall be glad to see mr. Meddowes heere, and ready to serve him, as I have done those other gentlemen, the publicke ministers of his highnesse, as they have past this place, beinge sorie I cannot be otherwise serviceable for the great charge the state is at heere of me. Noe doubt but the kinge of Denmarke will give a better welcome to your publick minister now than he did to me, whose hap it was to be sent to him, when he was soe little a friend to our state. From the assurance your honour is pleased to give me in this your letter, I shall expect shortly to see an end of that longsome businesse with mr. Townley, and hope it will be (as you say) to my satisfaction.

Since my last, little hath occurred heere of moment, but what you will find in the inclosed letters. The kinge of Denmarke goes on vigorously againe with his levies: though he seemed at a stand lately, its now beleeved he will shortly attack the kinge of Sweden in one part or other, though the defensive is onely pretended. The states of Prussia under the duke of Brandenburgh have lately petitioned him in a pittifull manner to quiz the kinge of Sweden, and take care for his allmost ruined country, as they say: but for all what they and the Muscoviter can doe, hee seemes yet firme to the kinge. This is too busye a tyme to give you further truble. I cease it therefore, prosessinge myselfe
Your honor's verie humble servant,
Richard Bradshaw.

Hamb. 17th March 1656/7.

I have sent one to the Danish court, to see if I can get more certayne knowledge of their designe in raysinge such forces.

478 to mediate a peace between that and
31 Aug 1657 Nieuport, the Dutch embassador in England, to Ruysch.

Vol. liii. p. 221.

My lord,
Upon saturday last in the morning the lord secretary of state came to me, and declared, that he had been hindred by several important affairs to come to me the day before as he had promised, with many civil expressions desiring that I would excuse him. I had understood by another hand, that his honour was sent with general Desbrowe and colonel Jones, to conclude with the earl of Warwick the marriage between his grand-child and the lady Frances, youngest daughter of the lord protector. I told his honour, that upon his often and reiterate promise I had assured their H. and M. L. from time to time, that as soon as the great domestic affairs concerning the settling of the government should be finished, that then there should be endeavoured to finish the maritime-treaty, and to settle other business, that their H. and M. L. should be able to see in effect the good affection of the lord protector. That at present his highness was not only so solemnly invested in the government, but also in the council confirmed, and yet I could not perceive (though I had lately made some further earnest instance) that any thing was furthered about the said treaty: that I had not received any answer to any proposition concerning the unfriendly and neighbourly act of the 29th of October 1651. His honour answered me, that he the day before had earnestly proposed in the council the business of the maritime-treaty; and that it was resolved, that upon the tuesday following the 28th instant, there should be report made to the council of the points not yet agreed, to see what issue can be found concerning the same; that he consequently would further the same; and concerning any other proposition tending to the recalling of the said act, that therein nothing could be done as long as the parliament did not meet; and that he did admire to see, that I should so earnestly urge the recalling of the said act, since that no other of the friends or allies did complain about it. I replied, that there was a great deal of difference between them and the state of the United-Netherlands, as his honour might have perceived by what I fully declared concerning that subject; declaring to him, that their H. and M. L. had another intention or design, then thereby to strengthen the band of amity between both, and to remove all occasions of ill-will and disaffection. His honour said, in truth his highness had the same inclination as he had formerly de clared to me, but that all things could not be dispatched at one time; that good regard must be had to the constitution of affairs as well at home as abroad. His honour speaking of the war between the two northern kings said, that the lord protector wished, that peace and amity might be re-established between them; that he would send to each of them an extraordinary envoy, and that the contents of their instructions should be communicated unto me, whereby the justness and sincerity of his highness's intention will appear; and in conclusion he said, that he would ride to Hampton-court, and faithfully report to his highness all what I had proposed unto him. Yesterday morning mr. Meadowe, envoy extraordinary to the king of Denmark, communicated to his majesty's resident here, that he was ordered to recommend most seriously to the king his master to make peace with the king of Sweden, and to offer thereunto the mediation of his highness. He also declared, that the like order and instruction was given to col. Jephson, and no other. He also assured him, that his highness did not send a man, nor any money to his assistance, nor did not as yet intend to send; but that he as a good friend did first try viam concordiæ.

W. Nieuport.

Westminister, 31 Aug. 1657. [N.S.]

508 Arrival at Elsenore. 11 Sep 1657 Mr. P. Meadowe to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. liv. p. 103.

Right honorable,
My last to your honor was from Dover on thursday the 3d of September, which day I went aboard the Assistance frigat in Dover-road, and on wednesday following arrived safe with al my company at Elsenore. That evening I wrot to the governor of the castle, signifying my arrival, and the next morning went ashoar. As we passed the Sound to come to an anchor, we were saluted from the castle, and so was my boat the next day; but since that the governor has neither himself, nor any gentleman from him, welcomed me at my lodging, albeit I first complimented him, which is short of the civility of the southern countrys. This day I dispatched Ewens, attended by some others, to Copenhagen, with letters to 4 of the senators residing there, giveing them notice of my arrivall, and requesting them to signifie the same to his majesty, as also to grant me a passport, and to furnish me with a guide, and other necessarys for such a journey, for that I minded to go directly to his majestie with expedition, according to the exigency of my business, which will be mr. Ewers his just excuse, that he writes not to your honor by this conveyance, the captain of the ship being ready to set saile. I have already wrote to col. Jephson at Hamburgh to begin our correspondence there. For newes I can only present you with general reports; as that the king of Poland is entered Prussia; the king of Sweden about Kolding in Jutland; the king of Denmark at Odensea in Fuenenisland; the armies on Schonen side near each other; so that several horse were transported hence to Elsengburgh, some of which I saw at my landing. By my next I hope your honor shall find, that I am enter'd upon my business. In the mean time I take my leave, and remain

Your honor's most humble and most faithfull servant,
Ph. Meadowe.

Elsenore, Sept. 11, Eng. style, 1675.

I had no sooner finished my letter, but in comes to me the governor of the castle with a great deal of complement, excusing his no sooner visiting me, as conceiveing me under some indisposition from my long voyage at sea.

509 Complimented by the governor. [See PS on previous Item.]
533 Account of his negotiation, &c. 26 Sep 1657 Mr. P. Meadowe to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. liv. p. 229.

Right Honorable,
My last to your honor was from Elsenore, Sept. the 11th, soon after which I had the welcome newes of his majestie's return out of Funen to Coppenhagen; so that it proves abundantly for the better, that I steerd my course by the Sound rather than by the way of Hamburgh. Upon my comeing hither I was welcomed in his majestie's name, about two miles out of the citty, by monsieur Ritz, one of the councill, and formerly ambassador extraordinary in England, an 1652, accompanied by 6 of the king's coaches, and divers others of the city, wherein were many gentlemen of quality. At the entrance of the citty I was received by the king's guards and liveries, and on both sides the streets, all along to my lodging, the burgers were drawn up in military equipage. I was 3 dayes seasted very magnificently at the king's cost, attended by his officers with all the formalities of the court, carving, saytaking, &c. I am informed, my reception was more solemn than usual, to the regret of some other ministers resideing in this court; which I thought myself obliged to signifie as a respect don my master. I sent a gentleman to complement in my name the French and Dutch ambassadors, and to give them notice of my arrivall: the French is sick, and keeps his chamber: the Dutch has given me no visit, nor I him. The 20th instant I had audience, and was graciously received by his majestie: he is a prince of a most noble presence. The 23d I had audience againe; mr. Ritz was both times his majesty's lingua. The rix-hoff-master and he are appointed as commissioners, with whome I may have further conference, as occasion offers. Besides the verball assureances of his majestie's kind resentment and acceptance of his highnesse's interposition, I pressed to have a declaration thereof, which was this day brought me by monsieur Ritz, sealed with his majestie's seale; a copy whereof I have herewith enclosed to your honor, and have sent another to col. Jephson: so that it now rests with his majestie of Sweden, to declare his concurrence and readinesse to a peace; and then commissioners will be appointed to meet in a neutrall place, and enter upon a treaty. The place I suppose will be Lubeck; and it will be needfull, that I receive orders for my removall thither, or elsewhere, according as the business shall issue; as alsoe for my comportment towards the ambassadors and ministers in point of precedency. Your honor may believe it, they have made no alliance with the king of Hungary or the Austrians, nothwithstanding the large proffers, which have been made them by the baron Goet; neither is it their intention, as they tell me, to make any, unles deserted by their neighbours and allies of the same intrest in religion. I have assured them of his highnesse's real and hearty good will towards them; and I believe, that propositions of a strict alliance and confederacy with England would be well entertained by them; tho' they are not averse from treating, yet they expect honorable conditions, as supposeing themselves under no necessity. Altho' they blame the ill conduct of their affairs in Holstein, yet hope to serve themselves of the same strattagem against the Suede, as Fabius did against Hannibal, beat him by not fighting. This at land, but at sea they follow different counsills. The 2 fleets had lately a contre-scuffle, for fight I can't call it; but the Danish fleet, about 4 dayes agone, set sayle with a new renfort and peremptory orders to seek the Suede and fight him. 'Tis not doubted here but the elector of Brandenburg has confederated himself with the Pole, and received in requital the sovereignty of Prussia. I shall not enlarge further upon newes, onely I hear the king of Sweden is at Stralsundt; and I fear his often removes will make it long before I hear from col. Jephson, from whom as yet I have received nothing. I beseech your honor not to fail me by the next convenience. I am

Your honor's most humble and most faithfull servant,
Ph. Meadowe.

Coppenhagen, Sept. 26th, 1657.

545 Order'd to find out the allies of Denmark 2 Oct 1657 Secretary Thurloe to mr. P. Meadowes, the English ervoy at Copenhagen.

Vol. lv. p. 5.

I Received yours, dated the 11th of September old stile, from Elsenore, signifieing your safe arrivall at Elsenore. Since that I have had nothinge from you, although the last post be come, whereby I hoped to have received a letter from you. That I have not, I attribute it to some miscarriage by the way, believinge you will not omitt to write by every opportunitye, that soe H. H. may have a constant account of your negotiations there. By every letter be as particular as you can, as to all accounts. I heare the Dane expresseth hymselfe willing to treate, but that the kinges of Hungary and Poland are to be parties, if not the Muscovite alsoe, with whom they say the Dane is in a very strict league, and undertooke this warre by intelligence with them; which I pray enquire into, and if it be possible, by money or otherwise, to procure the knowledge of what treaties they have made with any of the states aforesayd, and whether he is obliged not to make peace without them: this will be a great service, if you can obteyne it. I knowe he is in a close allyance with the Dutch; but whether there be any treatye betweene them yea or not about this warre, that I would be farther informed of; as alsoe what assistance the Dutch give hym, by money, men or ships, and what ships the Dutch have in his service now, and whether those ships are the states owne, or merchant-men.

I desire alsoe, that you would write what condition his affaires are in; what fleet he hath; where the fleet is; whether Gottenburgh be still beseidged by sea, and what the force are at land. I pray procure as much certeintye as may be in these thinges, with what else occurs to you.

Since you went hence, the French army, with the assistance of the English, have beseidged Mardyke in the sea-coasts of Flanders, tooke it, and put it into the hands of his highnes. They intended a further progresse, but the season of the yeare will not permitt them to doe more this campain. There is nothing else of newes. I remayne

Your very affectionate friend to serve.

2d October, 1657.

549 His audience delay'd upon politic views. 4 Oct 1657 Mr. P. Meadowe to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. lv. p. 41.

Right honorable,
I Hope my pacquett, of the 26th of September, came safe to your honor's hand, wherein I gave you an account of the honorable reception, which I have had heer from his majestie of Denmark, with that respectfull solemnitie as has not been practised in this court to some ambassadours extraordinary; as also his said majestie's resentment of his highnes's offer, and his willingnes to enter upon a treaty for accommoding the present disferences betwixt the two crownes, under the mediation and interposition of his highnes. A copie of his said majestie's answer deliver'd me in writing, under his seal-royall, I then sent your honor, and now this duplicate enclosed. The Dutch ambassador is angry and jealous, because of the civilities I have been treated with. I have not yet visited him, because the first visit is du to me, as the last comer; but if your honor think it sitting for me to begin with him, I shal be ready to doe it upon intimation hereof. If the busines issues to a treaty, I shal be glad to receive a further instruction as to my demeanor in point of precedencie; becaus I suppose some other princes and states wil interest themselves likewise by their ministers in the mediative part, although the words of the king's answer are, sub interpositione serenissimæ suæ celsitudinis; which I know not whether they will be meant exclusive of others or no. The French ambassador, monsieur Avaucour, died here since my last. Mr. Missenden, secretary to the Hamburgh company, is sent to me hence touching the debt du to the company from the king of Denmark. 'Tis but a bad time to solicit for monies. His majestie went six or seven dayes since to his army in Sconen, but is expected back hourly. I have communicated al proceedings with colonel Jephson, but I heare he stops at Hamburgh, awaiting orders from the king before he advances further; so that not being yet admitted to audience, and doubtful when, I feare I shall stay long before I receive an answer from thence; for the busines stops 'til his majestie of Sweden shall declare a concurrence on his part. No engagement yet betwixt the two fleets: but it's said, that the Swedish is retired. It much depends upon the issue of a naval fight, which makes both sydes cautelous. This is al at present from

Your honor's most humble and most faithfull servant,
Ph. Meadowe.

Coppenhagen, October 4th, 57.

Let me know particularly from your honor the receipt of my letters from time to time, because the conveiance is very uncertain.

564 Account of his proceedings. 18 Oct 1657 [The next letter is not indexed but is highly relevant to the negotiations.

Major-general Jephson to secretary Thurloe.

[Paragraph contains cyphered content — see page image]

Vol. lv. p. 118.

I had last night the honour to receive your's of the 2d instant, whereby I am glad to find, that you have receyved some of my former letters from Hamburgh, wherein I have informed you of my misfortune in beeing something longer than I hopt I should have beene before I should gett to the king; which, as I conceyve, fell out wholly by the miscarriage of my first letter, which I sent to his majesty, to give him notice of my arrivall; by which meanes hee on the one syde began to thinke I might have some order not to hasten to him: and I relying upon his majesty's resident at Hamburgh, who daily fed me with hopes of a positive aunswer, when and where I should find his majestie, thought on the other syde my master was slighted, and that the king had noe mind to speake with mee. But truly, when at last I found him out at Wismarre (by his orders) I find nothing lesse but that wee have beene under mistakes: and truly, when I see under what weyght of businesse hee is, and how many daungers are round about him, I cannot wonder hee is soe intent upon his present assayers. Beeing at Fredericksodd, on the confines of Denmarke, at my arrivall hee was forct instantly to post away to Stetine, his farthest garison in Pomerania, to make head against Charnesque the Poles general, who had began to make an inroad into Pomerania; but I think did more mischief to the elector of Brandenburg's subjects then to the king of Sweden's. They are now wholly retreated; but the king may reasonably suspect they may make some inrode upon that or Prussia, this winter, hee beeing forct to keepe his chiefest force against the king of Denmarke. But to return to my negotiation: upon fryday last I had my first audience, where (according to custom) I spoke only in general, and that in English, and am confident was understood by noe one person, but those I brought with mee. But after I had delivered my paper in Latin, my credentiall letters, and the ratification of the peace, the king spoke to me in French, and made a greate many very high, and (I believe) very cordiall expressions to H. H. of his reall desyres of his peace and tranquillitye at home, of the prosperous and honourable successe of his affayres abroad, and above all things, of an intyre conjunction betweene themselves: and, I assure you, doth expresse himself in very good language, and strong. The next day, as a civilitie, he appointed the vice-admirall and the major-generall of the souldiers (whereof there are some 3000 aboard the ships) to come and invite me to see the fleete; where I was intertained very freely and civily aboard of the admirall, without any imposition of the customes of the country, but leaving mee freely to mine owne liberty, as I did them to theirs, which they used more moderatly then I expected. I was saluted by every ship in the fleete by two peeces of ordinance a piece, at both goeing and comeing. They are in all about f o u r and t h i r t y; three have a b o v e s i x t y g u n s, s i x f o u r t y, and the r e s t about t w e n t y, one with a n o t h e r. They are very strongly made, and well apointed, and I beleive will s e l l them selves d e a re, it the Danes a s s a u l t them; but I think k. of Sweden t h i n k s him s e l f t o o w e a k at present; for he told m e e this morning that st. gen. had s e n t to the Danes s e v e n great frigots full of men. Sir, the last night I receyv'd a letter from mr. Meadowe, together with a copye of the instrument, wherein the king of Denmarke hath declared his acceptance of a treaty of peace with the king of Sweden, under the mediation of his highnesse, which I assure myself you will know long before this comes to your hands: thereupon I sent the last night to presse for a second audience this morning, that I might bee able by this post to give some account of his majesty's inclinations in that particular; which accordinglye was graunted mee this morning at seaven a clock, which lasted a good houre and a halfe upon severall debates; every particular whereof would bee impossible to relate: therefore I shall only tell you some particular passages, and the results; for what I propos'd, it was the matter conteyned in the paragraphes of my generall instructions, from the beginning of the second to the latter end of the thirteenth, with the addition of my newes from Denmarke; to every one of which his majesty gave awnswers by little and little, as he remembred them; and truly I thinke hee forgott very few materiall thinges. Hee is very well satisfyed both of his highnesse's sending mee soe soone as hee did, and in the condition I am. Hee is very sensible of the greate expence and difficulty incident to the warre with Spaine, and gives greate expressions of rejoycing at the greate successes God hath given H. H. against that potent enemye. Hee very much approves H. H. pious intentions, indeavouring a generall peace amongst the Protestant partye. As to that betwixt the Dane and him, hee hath already exprest his consent to treate with him upon honourable tearms, but could not have time to advise with his councel what awnswer to give by way of assent in writing to H. H. mediation; but in mine owne opinion, I doubt not but to give you full satisfaction therein by the next. The manye thinges which I finde stick with him are these two; First, The f e a r, that the i n t e n t i o n s of the King of Denm. are not r e a l l to man, b u t only d i l a t o r y. Next, that this treat y may r e t a r u a f i n a l l a g r e e m e n t b e t w i x t him and his h i g h n e s, which I find is the thinge, that he l e e m e s most to r e l y on, as the s u r e s t ground of his p r o c e e d ing s. I rejoyce very much at your possessing of Mardyke, which I conceive to be of no small consequence. My former discourses have answered the latter part of my letter; for in the instrument, accepting the mediation, K. of Demn. hath m a d e no m e n t i o n, n e i t h e r K. or Sw. or Polland, and here he is f e a r e d to be too much e n k a ge d.

The time I have lost this day, and the post comming in late last night, and goeing about 5 a clocke this afternoon, as it may have been an hindrance to mee for making this relation soe punctually as I could wish, to save you a longer trouble, I thought to have written to some of my noble freinds; but really I am cut short. I find at this distance, where my letters must runn soe many hazards, I can write nothing either to H. H. or the councill but ordinary thinges: but I beseech you, sir, as the friend on whom I chiefly rely, be pleased to give mee your advice, whether it bee fitt for mee something to write to them, or noe, and accordingly I shall behave myselfe, and I hope evidence to you by all my occasions, that I am,

Deare sir,
Your most humble and affectionate servant,
William Jephson.


[The following is the indexed letter:]

Mr. P. Meadowe to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. lv. p. 144.

[Paragraph contains cyphered content — see page image]

Right Honorable,
I Have not heard from England since my arrival heer, nor from col. Jephson, no more then the bare intimacion of his arrival at Hamburgh, which puts my busines to a pause. Since my last to your honor of October 11th, the king is returned from Sconen, whereby I have had oppertunity to communicate to him my 6th, 7th, and 8th instructions. As to the 8th, it is certaine Denmark has made no al l y a 24 nce 21 6 with Austria, although much courted unto it. My 7th relishes wel heer, and I beleive I should be able to give a good accompt of it, if so be I were more perticularly instructed; but till then I can make no progres. Dutch embassador has endeavoured to perswade Denmark, that his h i g h n e s has granted a levy of 3000 to be transported for Holstein, to serve Sweden against Denmark; which if tru, would be il resented heer, the afore-named having taken upon him the m e d i a t i o n. I long to heare from your honor, whose I am

most ready in al service,
Ph. Meadowe.

Leghorn, Octob. 18, 1657.

One that beares the title of major-general Montgomery, son to the earle of Eglington, came lately to this town to seek an employment under his majesty. If your honor think good, give me a word how to demean my self in cases of this nature, when any of the old cavaleer party shal address themselves hither, who possibly may not be comprehended under the prosugi and rebelles mentioned in the 5 article of the last treaty.

12 October 1657.

10 Nov 1657 Forced to come to Hamburgh. Major-general Jephson to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. lv. p. 199.

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That you may not wonder to see my hand to a letter from hence, I shall first give you an account what brought me hither. I was six weekes together at Wismar, fore't (with great charge and inconvenience) to lie in a publique inne, and at length got a house, whereof I was forc't to repaire some part, and must furnish for my whole company all but three beds, and one eating-roome; soe that (wanting not only many necessaryes, which could not be had there, but money alsoe to buy them) I am forc't to come to this towne to provide my selfe of both. How the money is spent, I shall give you an account by the next, and shall desyre to stand or fall in your good opinion, as I shall bee able to justifye my good husbandry for the state (having still regard to the honor of my master) both for the time past and to come. I am sure many here are of opinion, my gists are too little; and my care and thrist in bargaining for carriadges, and all such necessaryes as I want (besydes my ordinarye expence) are greater then become mee; and I dare avow, they are not lesse then if every penny went out of myne owne estate. Before the next, I hope I shall gett some moneye, and (and according to your order to mee in England) place it upon mr. Martin Nowell by bills of exchange, to whom you will please, if it bee not allready done, to give order to accept them: for if my credit bee once blasted, I shall be ashamed to looke any man in the face any longer in this countrye. In my last of the 2d instant from Wismar, I gave you my sense of the whole state of affayres in these parts, upon the taking of Fredericksode. Since that the king of Swede hath sent his admirall with 4 or 5 of his best sayling shipps into Swede, to bring his queene to Wismar or Wolgatz, the plague being, as I heare, much in Swede. I heare, that cardinal Mazarine hath p r o m i s t Swede a considerable s u m m of money very quickly : if that be done, he will undoutedly take the f i e l d againe this w i n t e r, and then I am confident, Brand if he see him owne d by you and France, will a s s i s t him, and Ragotsi hath give n a s s u r a n c e private l y to Sweden, that he will in the s a m e time fall on Hungary. 'Tis strongly reported here, that the commander of the Cossackes (who invited them to this action against the Muscovite) beeing dead, they have againe made their peace with him, and are both joining feircely against the Pole. If that should soe fall out, it may probably for c e him to desyre a peace w i t h Sweden, who out of his desyre to d e s t r o y Denmark, may bee very likelye to a t t a c k it if Denmark do not hasten to a peace. Your's of the 30th of October I mett here; by which I perceive you had received mine of the 12th and 29th. According to my promise therein, I sent you a copy of the king of Swede's awnswer concerning the treaty with Denmark, by an expresse sent by the king (for I dare mention noe more letters of that abominable name) the 24th of October for England, and a duplicate I dispatch'd the 26th of October by the ordinary post, which I hope are come to your hands. I shall not fayle by the post to morrow to quicken mr. Meadowe for an awnswer from Denmark; for since I sent him the king of Swede's awnswer, which I heare he received safely, I have heard nothing from him. I will punctually allsoe observe your commands to morrow to the king of Swede, by acquainting him with the reasons which have h i n d e r d his highnesse from c o m mg to a resolution in this business. I know nothing in my poore opinion were more worthy his highnesse, then (at this time when hee hath ministers with all the most considerable Protestant princes and states) to propose a general meeting for the advancement of the common interest of religion, and the civil interest, and reconciling of differences; for (untill both religion and the civil interest of every state be something secured) I feare particular treatyes will not doe the work. I intend (God willing) to return the next weeke to Wismar, though truly I know nothing I have to doe there, but to expect what will be the issue of the Danish treaty, which (had I leave) I might have done as well at London, after I had received the king's awnswer, and found hee relyed wholly upon his ministers in England, as that which hee thought the quicker way. I humbly yet earnestly beseech you, that I may know his highnesse's pleasure concerning mee, and that (if I be of soe little use, as I find I am) I may be timely sent for home to serve him in parliament. I have no more trouble to give you at present, but to assure you, that I am

Your most faythfull and affectionate humble servant,
W. Jephson.

Hamburgh, 10 Nov. 1657.

The king of Denmark's army refuseing to engage with the Swedish in Jutland, retreated part over the sea into Schonen, so to infest the king of Sweden's territories in Halland, the other part of Fredericksode, both for the security of the place, and to be ready to take all advantages against the enemy; in the mean tyme quitting in a manner the possession of all the country: besides, the Swedes lay streniously encamped about two English miles from that time, as if it had been for that purpose only to have blockt it up this winter, that so their army might with more freedome range up and downe the countrey, to gather in contributions. This way of proceeding, and also the strength of the Danish army, made the garrison very sure of an assault to be made on the town, they being about 5000 foot, and the enemy not above 1500, the greatest strength lying in horse. But the Swede's army being encreased in foot with the addition of two regiments, which marcht thither from Cracow; and being now about 3000 foot, field-marshall Wrangle resolved to storm the town, which he did early in the morning on the 23d, the second day after the coming of the souldiers to him. The Swedes fell on in three places. The prince of Anhault commanded one party, Grave Jacob de la Gard another, field-marshall Wrangle led on the third. Wrangle had observed one gate of the citty, near the water-side, more weakly fortifyed than the rest; the obscurity of it, and the naturall strength of it, by the sea coming up to it, had made them the more careless of it. It was desended only by a turnpike, directly the way leading to it, and fenced with a bulwark on each side. This place mr. Wrangle undertook to assault, intending to get his horse this way into the towne: which design of his succeeded. The turnpike was gained at the first onsett by the foot, and the Danes beaten thence flying into the towne, the Swedish horse entered together with them, which scowring up and down the streets, presently made themselves masters of the place. The Danes rix-marshall was here taken, and a privy-councellor of the king's. Two thousand were taken prisoners, one thousand slaine, and the rest gott away by flight, or hid themselves, and will shortly be found out. Here were fifty pieces of cannon taken; and by the takeing of this towne, the king of Swede is made master of one of the strongest and most considerable harbours in these parts.

[See the previous letter] Sends the king of Sweden's answer to Oliver
626, 629 and the treaty between Sweden and
22-24 Nov 1657 Mr. P. Meadowe, envoy in Sweden, to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. iv. p. 267.

Right honorable,
In my last to your honor of November 15, I mentioned the merchants buisines, about which his highnes wrote to his majestie of Denmark, to be in a fair way of dispatch; but since, before I could deliver his highnes letter, his majestie caused the ships and goods to be discharged, and for those goods, that were sold, satisfaction to be given the interested upon my certificate, that the said ships and goods belonged to the subjects of England; so that the letter I kept by me, and the newes your honor may please to communicate to the merchants.

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The 20th of November I received one from you of October 23d, which came in monsieur Petkum's pacquett; and yesterday another of the 30th instant. 'Tis now no secrett, that his majestie of Denmark has oblidged himself not to make peace with Sweden, without including the Pole; for the answer of November 3d, which your honor has received ere this, openly maintained it. For my own part, as occasion offered, I have taken the boldnes to insinuate my dislike to the contents of that paper, as unsatisfactory and il advised. The truth is, they are divided about it; some are willing to begin a treaty sepa rately; others are for a generall peace or none. The Dutch amb. s t e e r s this la t t e r c o u r s e, with w h o m e I have now a very good correspondence, notwithstanding our former strangnes.

But as I aprehend, the very knot of the difficulty is this; should the Dane desert the Pole, and make offer to the king of Sweden to treat with him apart from the other, his feare is, that the king of Sweden will make use of this advantage against him, to conclude a peace under-hand with the Pole; which the Pole will be easily induced to, receiving this disobligation from the Dane: and then the warr wil ly heavy on Denmark; for neither of these princes divided is able to maintaine the warr against Sweden. If therefore they seperate their interests, then happy he, that prevents the other, by making his peace first; at leastwise the king of Sweden having thus disunited them, wil at the same time begin a publique treaty with Denmark, and a private one with Poland, and force Denmark into dishonorable conditions, by the jealousie of a peace to be made with Poland; and so vice versa: and at last, where he sees not advantagious conditions offered, clap up a peace there, and prosecute the warr against the other. Divide & impera.

Indeed, were the Dane assured, that upon his giving the Pole this disgust by commencing a treaty separate from him, his highnes would interpose to bring him of upon equall and honorable termes with the Swede, something then might be done; but they heer can neither believe, that his majestie of Sweden will easily quit to eminent an advantage, or that his highnes of England really means them such a kindnes, they having done England too many injuries, to expect reasonably from thence so great a benefitt.

When his majestie of Sweden shal return an answer to that of his majestie of Denmark of November 3d, some further resolution may be taken; but till then I have little hope to obtain, that they should further declare themselves. In the mean time I am labouring continually to dispose them to a seperate treaty.

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Two dayes ago I should have had a private c o n f e r r e n ce with Denmark, upon his owne in c t i o n, which none of his councel should have been p r i v y with; but it is deserred til some time this w e e k e.

Nothing of action lately; the fleet is expected home every day. Funen is ful of souldiers, horse and foot, severall troopes being fetcht out of Sconen, and sent thither. I am,

Your honor's most humble and most faithful servant,
Phil. Meadowe.

Copenhagen, Nov. 22d 1657.


Major-general Jephson to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. lv. p. 345.

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According to my expectation hinted to you in my last, I have receyved from mr. Meadowe the king of Denmark's awnswer to the king of Swede's declaration of his acceptance of his H's. mediation, which I herewith send; in which you will find our former doubts and feares reduc't to certaintyes. The king of Denmark will not treate without including all that border upon the Baltick-sea, especially the king of Poland; and unless hee will breake his articles. (whereof I formerly sent you a copy, which is not altogether impossible) he cannot without the house of Austria, and they not without their allyes &c. and then must H. H. become the mediator for reconcileing the differences between all the Catholique princes in these parts, necessitate the king of Sweden wholely to lay downe his armes, and leave the house of Austria and their adherents in full liberty to assist the king of Spaine against England and Portugall. But this businesse is soe clear in the text, it needes noe comment. The treaty I mentioned in my l a s t betwixt Musc. Poland, and Brand. is rather with the n o b i l i t y of Poland than with the k. of Pol. and it seemes to mee very probable there may b e some difference am o n g n s t them, the G. D. Muse. and Cosaaks with w h o m, 'tis said, Ragotsky is joyned do not force them to leave their private amity to join against a common enemy. The Dutch embassadours are now againe receyved by the king of Swede, and all things seem very fayre betwixt them, as I am informed by an English gentleman that lives with them. I am now returning with all the speed I can to Wismarr, and intend to use the best interest I can make there to gett one offer more of a treatye with the king of Denmark, if hee will yet treat apart, or only in order to the union mentioned in my instructions; and when that is over, one way or another, truly unless you give me new instructions, or the king of Swede should cut me out some work, I hope you will give me your command to come home, which cannot now be done but by land; and therefore you will please to consider, whether I may be of any use in my journey homeward, and which way you will command me to take. Sir, I gave you in my last an account of my expences: I shall not now trouble you with another, though I have been forced to buy many things here. I have received a letter of creditt hither from mr. Nowell, amounting to about 400 l. sterling, which I shall mannage as thristily as I can for my future subsistance. I have now receyved yours of the 13th instant; to the particulars whereof I shall give you my aunswers in order. I shall not fayle punctually to observe his H's. command to the king of Sweden concerning the businesse of Fredericksode. I wonder much at mr. Meadowes's writing to you, that hee hath received no letters from you or me since: truly I know not of any one letter hath miscarried since I came. This progress, is evident, hath been made betwixt us, which I have given you an account of. He first sent me the king of Denmark's acceptance of his H's. mediation. Then I sent him one from the king of Sweden, to which I have received this inclosed aunswer. I assure you, I shall not be wanting eyther in my desyres or indeavours to promote the treaty; and doe heartilly wish I had more reason to bee confident of the successe. I am very sorry to heare wee are likely to be upon such ill terms w i t h Low-Countries, which confirmes me in my former opinion, that nothing would bee more honourable for his H. nor more advantageous to the publick interest, then if H. H. would propose a general treat y betwixt a l the P r o t e s t a n t s; for really, sir, I have told you this treating a p a r t doth but palliate a disease in some members, whereunto every relapse doubles the danger to the whole body. I intend not hereby that the Frarmy or Portugall shall be made e n e m y s, or any other that will b u t s t a n d neuter; though it may be sayed (with as much truth as it ought to be with greif) that religion amongst states is much oftner pretended for their owne interests, then really imbrac't for the honour of God. Yet, meethinks, twere not labour ill spent, to discover any that durst publiquely avow that principle. You r r e a s o n s for not send ing the srigatts in to the Balt. sea, I conceive to be very satisfactorie, which I shall take some opportunity to communicate to the k. of Swed. Sir, my meaning by join ing with Sweden was, that if by the k. of Denmark's obstinacy the power of the Balt sea shall bee devolved to other hands, you would so oblidge the k. of Swed. by as s i s t ing him, that he might putt a part of it in you r hand. The places I mentioned in my letter of the 2d instant, and my opinion of them, according to my best intelligence, which I suppose you had not then received, they were Gottenburg nd F r e d e r i c k s o d e. I assure myself you were not before ignorant of the conveniencies and inconveniencies belonging to them, which I will not presume to judge of. I shall use my best endeavours to restore the el. of Brand. to the k. of Swed. but the care the k. of Den. hath of him and assistance of the stat. gen. makes me somewhat afraid of him. I shall (God willing) give you a speedy account of the king of Swede's inclinations touching mr. Bradshaw's going to Muscoe, and also give him notice thereof by the first opportunity. I received a letter from him just now of the 10th instant, wherein he tells me, he expects speedy admittance to the grand-duke, who, I hear, is now by the advise and assistance of 599 fortifying Archangell. I shall by to-morrow's post write to mr. Bradshaw your commands to me concerning him. I have detained you too long; I feare you will not have patience to read out my letter: I shall therefore conclude, assuring you I most really am

Your truly affectionate and most humble servant,
William Jephson.

Hamburg, 24 Nov. 1657.

640 and the Danes objection to it. 29 Nov 1657 Mr. P. Meadowe to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. lv. p. 331.

Right honorable,
Thursday last I had a conference with his majestie in private, not in the palace, but in another place, which he had appointed twice; and yet his coming thither was not so private, but that it was presently known in the city. I find what I mentioned in my former letter to your honor to be the very knot of the busines; viz. the jealousie here is, that should his majestie of Denmark condescend to a treaty with Sweden seperate from the king of Poland, the Swede would make use of this to disunite Poland from Denmark, and then clap up a peace under-hand with the Pole, to prosecute the war against the Dane. And I remember his majestie replied upon me the very words in my letter, Divide & impera.

The day following monsieur Keetz came to me from his majestie, and yesterday again; which puts people here in great expectation of somthing to be done. I am still hinting to them, that good prudential rule, Il faut caler la voile, quand la tempeste est trop forte. It would be too tedious to recount particulars; but in brief, I find the temper of affairs is this: they are very willing I should doe something for them. They are very loath to tell me what. They would have me ghesse at their meaning; but I would have them explain it, for fear of mistaking them. The truth is, they are willing to a peace, but they would have it upon honorable terms; and their design is to obtain, that the king of Sweden would insinuate those termes to collonel Jephson, to be communicated to me. And if heer they find them to be such as they can reasonably comply with, as a foundation for a just settlement, their intentions are instantly to make up the busines, and the peace shal be sooner effected then reported.

I conceive the indifferent medium betwixt both crowns will be hereabouts, an amnestie of what is past, restitution on both sides; Jempterland and Bremerford on this; Holstein and Jutland on the other; the former treaty renewed; a way opened for redressing the gravamina, more especially those relating to the trade of the Baltique. But should his majestie of Sweden fly higher; and make demands of satisfaction, he must get it by his sword; he will never get it by treatie.

As for the inclusion of Poland, in case his majestie of Sweden will not comply therewith, will he but deal frankly with them, and propound them equal conditions, I dare be the ensurer, that shall never be the obstruction; for, that he told me already, how that the Pole as to performing of covenants hath failed in tribus essentialibus. And if the king of Sweden shal make any difficultie to admit the states-general as mediators, I doubt not but they must be content at this time to stand asyde.

I have not yet received from collonel Jephson any answer to the paper of November 3d. I am thinking to send an express to him; for the ordinary conveyance is insufferably tedious. The Hamborough post not being come in, I cannot give you an accompt of the receipt of any letters from England. The plague is lately broke out in this citie, which if it disperses, wil necessitate the removal of the court. I am,

Your honor's most humble and faithful servant,
Ph. Meadowe.

Copenhagen, Nov. 29, 1657.

802 Audience of the king on that head. 14 Feb 1657/8 Mr. Ph. Meadowe to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. lvii. p. 265.

Right honorable,
After the newes of the taking of Funen, having received assurances in writing from his majestie of Denmark of his willingnes to enter upon a treatie with Sweden enclusive of others; and having nominated his commissioners for that purpose, to wit, the rixhof-master, and another of the senators, referring the time and place to the arbitrement of his majestie of Sweden, I sent immediately an express with letters to his majestie, to acquaint him herewith, and to desire safe-conducts in order thereto, and the nomination of his commissioners, with time and place. His majestie sent me letters in answer to mine within 5 daies, nominated Bielk and Ulfield, two senators; assign'd Langland as the place, sending likwise safe-conducts for myself and the Danish commissioners; upon the receipt whereof on tuesday last we parted from Copenhagen. In the mean time his majestie of Sweden had passed from Funen to Langland, from thence to Laland, and so to Falske; and on wednesday, within an English mile of Warenburgh, which is the last town in Zeland, wee mett him in a sleigh, with no more than two hundred horse, going to visit a ground to draw up his forces in, which as yet were not pass'd into the isle. After a smal salutation én passant, we went to the town, and took up our lodging, where his majestie appointed us, expecting his return; which as soon as I heard, I sent to desire audience; which was presently granted me, and receiv'd with much civilitie. I begun the introduction to a treaty, inviting his majestie to a peace, upon just satisfaction and securities, and pressed for a suspension of armes; but that could not be obtained. The king was very pleasant, but resolv'd withal; God had shown him the way, he told me, and had built him a bridge, and he could do no less than go over. He told me laughingly, he little expected to meet me upon the way. I answer'd, I less expected to meet him in an enemy's country, at the head of two hundred horse. The next day the commissioners, together with the French ambassador and myself, as the mediators, begun the treaty at Warenburg aforesaid, we two having accorded first the formalities as to the modus tractandi, and the like. The Danish commissioners first gave in their project of articles, afterwards the Swedish theirs; both of them monsters, one in defectu, the other in excessu. In fine, the French ambassador and I were forc'd to draw up a third project, to try if we could find the medium. In the mean time the king of Sweden made great marches for Copenhagen; which forced the Danish commissioners, being men who have the principal administration of things, to remove the treaty nearer their own king, and to have an eye upon affaires. I parted together with them yesterday from Warenburgh towards Copenhagen; the French ambassador, as I suppose, followed with the other commissioners. This day we came as far as this town of Cogel, which is 4 leagues from Copenhagen, where his majestie of Sweden now is with his army, consisting of about 7000 men, as sir William Vavasor assures me. The Danish commissioners are gone to consult their king concerning some propositions. I stay behind to await his majestie of Sweden's answer and ultimate resolution, and intend to go therewith to-morrow for Copenhagen; monsr. Coyet promises me to dispatch it. The army marches early in the morning, and I beleeve wil draw up in sight of Copenhagen by the evening. I shall have frequent occasion to pass and repass betwixt both kings; but unles I make a peace, adieu Denmark. The Swedish propositions, I confes, are very high, but their advantages likewise very great. Monsr. Coyet told the king, that I commended this to him for his motto, Reverentem habere fortunam. They demand no less than Sconing, Bleking, Bornholm, and in Norway Bahus and Fronten cum districtibus, 4000 armes, hors and foot, eight of their best ships, and a sum of money. I shal doe my best, and I pray God issue all for good; but I am sure we are heer at present in pitiful circumstances. I desired monsr. Coyet to send this for Hamburgh, which whe ther it will arrive in England, I know not, being hard put to it for the conveiance of my letters, no post having pass'd out of this island since this frost. I sent one paquet to Funen, to be conveied for Fredericksode by a trumpet; but I seare it miscarried. I wish for major-general Jephson, but I heare he is at Wismar. Pardon this confus'd haste from
Your most faithfull servant,
Ph. Meadowe.

From the head-quarters at Cogel, 4 leagues
from Copenhagen, Feb. 14, 1657/8.

838 Account of the treaty of Roshil. 2 March 1657 Mr. P. Meadowe to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. xxxvi. p. 35.

Right honourable,
My last to your honour was from Roshil, where I gave you an accompt the commissioners on both sydes were met in order to draw up the treatie into a more ample form and diduction, the minutes thereof being formerly agreed at Torsdorp, a village 2 leagues from Copenhagen. We staid at Roshil ten daies, and many disputes and debates there were, before we could issue the buisines to a conclusion, there being a contrary faction in Copenhagen, and the Dutch embassador most notoriously, and in publique, whether by the order of his superiours, I know not: but notwithstanding all their opposition, the treatie was signed and sealed saturday last in debita forma by the mediators and commissioners. The concept of the articles on this syde is in Danish, on the other in Swedish; there being no more diference betwixt both languages than betwixt English and Scotch. I have not yet had the opportunitie to get them translated, but shal doe it as soon as possible, and send a translate to your honour. Sconen, Hallandt, Bleking, Bornholm, Bahuys, and Trontheim are to be incorporated with the crown of Sweden. The 2000 horse agreed to be given the king of Sweden are already delivered; the 2000 foot, which I formerly mentioned were likewise to be delivered, are abated. The buisines, for which I was sent, is through God's blessing ended; and if my master wil graciously please to recall me home, I shall be better able to report to him the particulars of my negotiation than I am by letters. The day after the treatie was sealed and exchanged, I went to Ringsted, a town 4 leagues beyond Roshil, to performe the compliments of his highnes to his majestie of Sweden, in giving him the selicities and congratulations of the peace. I dined with him that day; and in al his discours he testifies a singular affection to his highnes. After many pleasant caresses, having with me a very brave horse and sword, which I brought with me out of England, the king took such liking to them, that I was obliged to present them. He told me, he would use that sword against the house of Austria. I told him, I should acquaint my master therewith, who would be sure to require the promise. I wish he does not use it against the elector of Brandenburgh. I am sure, I find in him a ready disposition to give that prince the revenge; and wil doe it, unless that differ ence be timely taken up. Yesterday I returned for Copenhagen, and to-morrow am to goe for Fridericksburgh, where the two kings and queen are to have their enterview, being invited thither to the entertainment: we shal lodg there but one night, and the day following I shall accompany his majestie of Sweden to Elsenore, and there take my leave. He passes from thence to Elsenburgh, to settle his affaires in Sconen; from thence to Helmstadt and Gottenburgh, where his queen meets him. There he embarques for Funen, so for Jutland and Holstein; and is to draw all his forces out of his majestie of Denmark's territories by the 2d of May. With what eye the other ambassadors residing in this court look upon these things, who made it their sole endeavor to supplant me in my busines, I leave to others to judg. His majestie of Sweden acquainted me, how your honor had been very dangerously sick; which was the first notice I had of it, my last letters from England bearing date Decembr. 25th. I shall long to hear of your recovery; and am,

Copenhagen, March 2d 1657.

Your honour's most humble and faithful servant,
Ph. Meadowe.

850, & seq. Of the peace between Sweden and Denmark. 7 Mar 1657 Mr. Ph. Meadowe to secretary Thurloe.

Vol. xlvii. p. 291.

Right honourable,
My last to your honour was from Copenhagen of the 2d instant, wherein I gave an accompt, that the peace being concluded betwixt both crownes, the two princes were to have a friendly enterview at Fridericksburgh. I shal give a brief narrative thereof, as being somewhat rare and unusual: There was no publique minister present but myselfe, the French ambassador retiring upon some considerations; and I must needs say, that throughout the whole ceremonie there was much of honour and respect testified to my master in my person. I put myself in company of his majestie of Denmark, being the prince, to whom I was more particularly sent; and from Fridericksburgh I went out with him on thursday last, about 3 English miles, to meet his majestie of Sweden, who was then upon his way from Roskil. This king was waited on by about 600 horse, besides his ordinary guards, gentlemen, and officers; the other by about 400, besides the attendants of his court. Both kings alighted at the same time out of their coaches at a convenient distance, and so went forwards on foot to meet and salute each other; which was done by giving the hand. The salutation ended, the king of Denmark brought the king of Sweden to his coach, placed him at the highest end, himself on the right syde; I and the duke of Sunderburgh on the lest. In this equipage we returned for Fredericksburgh, continued together in a common room for some time, afterwards each was conducted by the officers of the ceremonies to his particular apartment, to repose till supper; which being ready, we were brought out again, each in his order, and placed before the table. The senators brought the basons and towels to the two kings, other gentlemen to me and the duke, all at the same time. Then the marshal of the ceremonies came up to the king of Sweden, to seat him at the head of the table, but he refused it, giving that place to the queen, who after many compliments was constrained to accept it; whereupon the king of Sweden was placed at the right hand of the queen on the syde of the table, and the king of Denmark next beneath him, both sitting down together.

The marshal of the ceremonies took me out to place me at the left hand of the queen, over-against the king of Sweden; but I refused that place, yielding it to the Dutchess of Sunderburgh, and seated myself opposite to the king of Dennemark, next beneath me the duke, then count Gabriel Oxensteirn, and others.

The same method was observed all along; only the last morning, the queen not being present, the king of Sweden sate at the head of the table, the king of Denmark on the right syde, and I on the left. Your honor will easily judge there wanted nothing for entertainment; it lasted from thursday evening till saturday; when, after a long breakfast, we began to take leave. His majestie setting forwards for Elsenore, the king of Denmark accompanied him about 2 or 3 English miles, and then returned that morning. Both kings presented each other with several horses; and many gifts were given to the officers of the Danish court. I went forwards with his majestie of Sweden in the same coach to Elsenere, where we found another table ready spread. After a short repast the king made hast to pass the Sound, not a little rejoicing to see his country after 3 years absence. He would have had me gone along with him to Elsenburg, but I thought it more proper to decline it, only walked along with him upon the ice, to accompany him to his boat; where taking my leave of him, and he of me with a great deale of courtesie, the ice beginning to bend with the throng of people, he leaped into his boat, and I hasted back, the guns playing briskly from their castles. I lay at Elsenore that night, and yesterday returned to Copenhagen; so that hitherto I have had no time to get the articles translated, but hope to send them your honor by the next post. I am here awaiting the orders of my master for my revocation, which is expected in this court. And a publick minister is already designed from hence to England, who does but attend my removeal; so that the proposition of a strister alliance with this crown wil be better if moved on this side, and more conveniently treated on in England then here; and my longer stay here wil be disadvantage to my master's service. The only remaining busines is, to adjust the satisfaction of the duke of Holsteyn, which his majestie of Sweden has recommended to me, as also the duke himself by his own letters, which were delivered to me by his plenipotentiary lately arrived. This wil be the work but of a few daies. These publique entertainments and the excessive rate of all things here, by reason of so many forces drawing into this little isle, wil much heighten my expences. I am,

Copenhagen, March 7th, 1657.

Your honor's most humble and faithful servant,
Ph. Meadowe.

I shall desire to return by the way of Hamburgh, and purpose to salute the duke of Holsteyn en passant.

Meadowe in Thurloe's State papers    Genealogy    Home