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A L Powys's New Zealand journal for 1866

The first officially sponsored group of immigrants from Britain landed in Dunedin, New Zealand, on 23rd March 1848.

This is a transcript of a Journal, kept in a small leather-bound notebook, by my Great Uncle ARTHUR LYTTLETON POWYS, from his arrival in CHRISTCHURCH, NEW ZEALAND in 1866, until it suddenly finished, on Christmas Eve, 1867.

The Journal starts again, in May 1872, by which time he was in Argentina, along the Parana River, between Esquina in the north, and Parana and Santa Fe, in the south.

This second short journal, covering but two months, does not give much indication of what my Great Uncle was doing there, except running a mill and transport. There is, however, mention of a "Dick" in the Argentine Journal. Is this the same Dick who figures in the New Zealand book ?? If so, it may be Arthur's younger brother, my Grandfather, RICHARD ATHERTON NORMAN POWYS, born 19th September, 1844, died 10th July, 1913.

ARTHUR LYTTLETON POWYS was born on the 17th October, 1842, (a brief mention is made of his 24th Birthday, in the entry for October 17th, 1866, but nothing at all in 1867), the eldest of three sons and two daughters of ATHERTON LEGH POWYS, Rector of Titchmarsh, in the County of Northampton, who was himself the son of THOMAS POWYS, 2nd Baron Lilford, by his wife Henrietta Maria, co-heir of Richard Vernon Atherton, in the County of Lancashire. Thomas POWYS, 2nd Baron Lilford, and Henrietta Maria had twelve children, amongst them one - (uncle to the writer of this Journal) born in November 1805, just after Trafalgar, and so named Horatio! - who became the Bishop of Sodor & Man.

It was in the Will of "the Honourable and Reverend Atherton Legh POWYS", (see the reference to a letter written on Sunday, 13th May, 1866, by Arthur L. Powys to "Hon & Rev", his father) that the Crown Derby service was left to his elder daughter, Evelyn Mary, on condition that, on her decease it should pass to her brother Arthur Lyttleton POWYS, or to his children. In the event, she outlived her brother by thirty eight years!

ARTHUR LYTTLETON POWYS never married and he was killed by Indians in South America just short of his thirty third birthday, on 8th October, 1875.

JOURNAL - 1866

Journal of events from landing in Canterbury, January 1st 1866, to April 12th 1866.

After a tolerable passage of 92 days in the "Mermaid", we landed on New Year's Day. On arriving in Christchurch, I found several of my old friends, and went shortly, with Dick, to the Selwyn, where I saw Occy and Nathan. I came down for the Races, and was rather unlucky. After that, I came up to the Weka Pass, in search of land, with Harman. After some trouble I selected a block, but alas no money came by the mail, so with the help of Harman and Stevens, I raised it and bought the land, February 1st.

On the 11th, Dick and myself went to Dunedin and a bad passage we had, which was compensated by the fund we had. We lost the match by two wickets. On coming back, I set about making arrangements about coming up here to live. I came up eventually on last March, and camped in a tent on the Waipara for some days, when I removed to the present site of the house and made myself a tent with a tarpaulin. About the middle of March the carpenters I had engaged came up and commenced putting up the house. Soon after I went to town on business and got a letter from Willes saying he had sent ›3000, which, however, never came. After coming back, Dick came up, which was a blessing, and I was taken ill about then and had to go to town again. I stayed there a week and came back a little better.

My regular journal commences from this point:


12th Up by seven. Put up the grindstone with Dick, helped to cook etc.In the evening wrote to Willes, Mrs Powys, Evelyn and Constance. Men got screwed off the rum and made a confounded row.

13th Dick rode 'Blueskin' to the Pass with the letters and got 1/2 a sheep at the Downs. I cooked. Forbes and Robinson came in the afternoon with two loads of stone, making 5 altogether.

14th Forbes & Co lost their horses until 12. Sent my horse to get them in. No Grantham at night. Read old letters.


15th Got up at ten. Mason went to the downs. Went out shooting with Dick; only shot a hawk. In the evening it rained for about two hours. Carver called about a quarter of beef.

16th Did nothing all day - in which Dick helped. In the evening, Grantham came by with the cattle. Dick helped to yard them

17th Up at daylight. All went to Evans', where I shot the bullock at the first go. Forbes came soon after. Had some trouble in skinning him as there was no gallows. Luckily Robson came up in his cart and took it and a sack of spuds. Pretty tired in the evening.

18th Salted the beef in the morning. Got all the shingles and the boards together. Robson & the carpenters went down.

19th Shaped at a table. Grantham showed up, but went away again. In the evening Langland, Lilburne & Co showed up and slept in G's tent, curse them!

20th Got rid of them, thank God! In the middle of the day, Harman and Captain came after land. They dined here. The Captain very fit as usual. Put up two shelves in my room and commenced a bunk.

21st Went on with the bunk. In the morning, just after tethering the horses, the brutes made a simultaneous bolt, and went towards the hills. We got them beck but could not catch them.


22nd Not so well today. The mason finished and went away, He has made an excellent chimney. Stayed in the house all day. Still no rain.

23rd Finished my bunk and made a frame for a kitchen table. No better, so I determined to lay in tomorrow. The unwelcome Grantham came in the evening. He and Dick got our horses & brought a cot.

24th In bed all day. The mason called for payment. Beastly dreary work.

25th Same all day. Norwester as usual & a few drops of rain.

26th Lay abed in the morning, but got up in the afternoon. though no better, the dray came with VDL palings etc. Letters from Mr. & Mrs. Powys and one in the same strain as last time from Willes. Norwester.

27th Grantham and Spiller came & went to the West Coast. Split up the palings for laths. Norwester.

28th Blowing hard all day. During the night it blew a perfect hurricane making the house rock and filling the house with blacks blown through the boards! Couldn't do any work. In the evening who should come but the Revd. Turrell, who stopped all night. Norwest rain at night.

29th Mr. Turrell went to the downs. Did nothing all day but laughed over Henry 4th.

30th Dick shaped well at the lining and did a good bit. I was not well enough to do much. Waters called.


1st A Sou'wester with snow for about two hours and beastly cold all day. I cooked and Dick went on with the plastering.

2nd Hard frost & fine; started about 2 o'clock to the Pass. Dick at work as usual. Got to the Pass after sundown. Missed the Captain and 2 letters.

3rd Slight rain. Went to town in the Coach. Slept at the Royal. Heard of my election to the Club.

4th Lunched and dined at the Club and did business at Harman and Stevens. Paid ›40 to the Club. Went to consult Garrick with Stevens in re Willes.

5th Bought a kitchen range, table, chairs, bath etc. Lived at the Club.


6th Went to the Accion gardens & cricket ground and lounged about at the Club.

7th Left town by the Coach and walked from the Pass. Dark all the way from the track. Very tired when I got home.

8th A lovely day. Put all the palings together & boards etc. Dick worked at plastering.

9th Another fine day. Put the shingles all together & dug a little cob.

10th Plastered part of the chimney in the sitting room. Dick cobbed. A heavy most until 11.

11th Another heavy mist. Same as yesterday.

12th Plastered what I had done. Dick at the same.


13th About 1 o'clock both went shooting down the creek. Shot five swamp hens of which we got three, and a Paradise duck. Wrote to Willes, Hon & Rev, Tom and Occy.

14th Dick went to the Pass with letters. Got bogged and lost a stirrup, brought back a lot of letters. I went on with the chimney.

15th I nearly finished the chimney and he went on cobbing. Forbes came with the furniture and went away.

16th Finished the chimney and commenced a H.P. Who should come in the evening but Pulleyn, who stayed all night.

17th Rained all night and a muggy day. Pulleyn made an A1 stew of the swamp hens and he and Dick nearly settled to start a dairy farm at the Kaikouras.

18th Another dull day. Pulleyn went away. Did a little bit of H.P. and cooked. Felt rather seedy.

19th Went on with the H.P. Mr. Hunter called and brought a candle mould.


20th Went shooting, and got one Paradise duck and 3 swamp hens. Waters called with the books.

21st Put up the frame of the H.P. Two men called about the fencing & sod - house. Rained slightly.

22nd Up at C.P. Walked to the Pass, got there in 2 hours & a quarter. Went down by Coach. Went to the Club.

23rd Bought a few things I wanted, and gave a bill of lading of the wire to Louisson. Played billiards & went in the evening to the Royal, to see the Calcutta Sweeps drawn.

24th All the shops shut and general holiday. Went to the Steeplechases; a beastly day, raining like billy. Old Jesse won. Went to the Ball in the evening; not enough ladies and only had 7 dances. Went to bed at 4.

25th Up again at 71/2, Beastly tired. Went to Leithfield by coach and bought two horses & a dray. Had tea with the Turrells & slept at Pagets.

26th Drove the dray up to the Pass & stopped there that night.


27th Came home. Horses behaved well with one exception. Dick in great form but very lonely.

28th Weatherboarded the new edifice and did various odd jobs. Made a brave stew of pukakies. Glubb & the mare joined a mob.

29th Dick went over to the pass. Came back with the Captain; very fit. Employed as usual.

30th Finished my billet. The Captain shaped well. Dick went on with my room.

31st Cleaned out the sitting room & went over the Captain's land. Called at the Cockatoo's and looked for the cart horses.


1st A lovely day. Found the cart horses with the Admiral's mob. Put the window in upstairs and cleaned the room out.

2nd Dug a ditch through the creek, and commenced digging it up for a garden. Fine hot day.


3rd Another fine day. Captain went to the Cockatoo's. I caught the cart horses. Some fool drove Glubb & the mare over the Waipara.

4th The Captain & I went in the dray to the Pass for the married couple. Dick went to the Admiral's. Two English letters, one from Mr & the other from Mrs Powys.

5th The Captain bought a mare and went to town about the wire. I came home with the M.C. without accident. Dick had slept at Heathstock & got both Glubb & the mare.

6th Set Bell at making a bed. Shaped at the garden myself. Dick went on Glubb to the Hurunui about meat.

7th Carter called about putting up a sod house. Let it for ›20. Dick went over to Heathstock and brought back the cart horses. Pulleyn called in the afternoon for Dick, who is to start tomorrow as far as the Hurunui.

8th Dick started on the mare about 8, to my great grief and I went on disconsolately with the garden. Tried to get a duck in the afternoon, but couldn't.

9th Went on digging in the garden. Set Bell to making steps. A strong N.Wester; raining in the hills.


10th Went over to the Admiral's on Glubb. Found Coventry there. Came on a Sou Wester. Stayed all night. Very fit.

11th Who should come but the Captain in a trap, for me to go to town with him. Started about 9 and after various small adventures reached town about 10. Went to the Club.

12th Went over to Port about the wire, also to see Woofe as the David Brown had arrived. Stayed at the Queen's.

13th Went on board the Japanese & David Brown. Arranged about the wire but did not see Woofe. Went to town by the coach.

14th Chartered the S.S. "Moa" from Reece to take the wire up to the creek. Saw Woofe in the evening. He seems a very decent, respectable man. Went to the sale at 11 a.m.

15th Spooned a good deal at the Subscription Rooms, varied by billiards.

16th Ditto. Went down to Coventry's crib, & had a wettish night.


17th Came to Christchurch with Coventry. Went to see J. Brunett in the evening.

18th Woofe, his son & I came up by coach to the Weka Pass. Stayed there all night. Saw the "Moa" at the creek.

19th Walked over here and got here about 2. Of course, Glubb had got loose the night before - Curse & blast those horses! Woofe expressed a favourable opinion of the land.

20th Dug a little in the garden. Put a blind in my room. Carter & Little commenced the mens' house. Bell went on Baldy, for a quarter of beef, to the Cockatoo's.

21st Meant to send Bell to the Hurunui with the horses, but he couldn't find them. Caught Baldy myself, but couldn't catch that brute Boxer. Men employed as before.

22nd Managed to catch my noble Boxer. Sent Bell as far as the Hurunui. Made one or two little cuttings for the dray to toi, and dug in the garden. Men employed the same.

23rd Dug in the garden all day, which now begins to make a show. Beastly cold Sou'West wind. Men employed as usual. No dray till 6 & 1/2.


24th A fine day. Went out for a walk down the Waipara. Shot a large Paradise drake.

25th Walked with Woofe as far as Matthews, who was as usual, in convulsions of laughter all the time. We then walked on to the Pass, en route for Christchurch. Dug in the garden. Men employed as usual.

26th Commenced carting the toi. Got 2 loads & a half. Other men as usual.

27th Fetched 2 loads, when it came on to rain from the NW, & stopped us. I got beastly wet. Rained most of the night. Robertson & Forbes came, one with 47 bundles of standards, the other with 20 bundles, and timber from Christchurch.

28th Fetched the last load. Let the horses go. Went on digging in the garden. Men finished walls of the house.

29th Carter & Little shaped at a fence round the house. I dug, and continued the drain through the garden. Showery from the NW.

30th Went over the Pass with a letter for Sir Aubrey. Got back at 6. Shot a Paradise duck. Showery again. Men at the fence; Bell digging in the garden.



1st Stayed in house all day and drank several very weak gins and water, with a good effect.

2nd Sent Bell for a load of wire and stayed about the place myself. Carter & Little got the rafters on the house. Robertson & Forbes left two loads of wire at the Waipara.

3rd Did about the house, as yesterday. Mr. Waters called & Bell came in the evening. A letter from Woofe and another from Stevens, which decided me to go to town on Thursday.

4th Fine day again; hard frost. Men went on thatching the house. Bell went to the scrub with young Woofe. I dug some more tree holes etc.

5th Walked to the Pass and thence per coach to Christchurch where I met Woofe. Stayed at the Club. Free & easy at Barnard's. Sang "Polly Bluck".

6th Did several things in Christchurch & saw Harman about the ›330. Went with C. Ollivier Dunning for cricket.

7th Played football in the afternoon. Went down in the evening to Coventry's & dined there & slept.


8th Walked into Christchurch with him, & went to see Woofe, & later in the day Ostler Mytton. Had dinner there & came away at 10.

9th Up early & saw the Doctor. Came away by coach & stopped at the Pass.

10th Walked home, the latter part of the way in a pouring rain. Stayed in the house all the afternoon. I am devouring Mill on 'Liberty'. Bell came with the dray from Robertson's.

11th Men went on fencing round the house. Put Bell to digging holes for trees. Went to meet the drays, but they did not come.

12th The drays came about 12 with standards etc. Left the standards along the Waipara. Planted strawberries & the trees in the afternoon. Men throwing out the ditch.

13th Men went on fencing & Bell digging. I sent young Woofe to town to help his father.

14th The same.


15th Stayed in the house all day & read Pelham & Matthew's Gospel. Devilish dull work!

16th Rained off & on all day, so could not send the dray to the scrub as I intended.

17th Sent the dray to the scrub. Digging & fencing. In the evening three fencers came & I billetted them in the mens' house. Later on, the dray came. Threatening rain all day from the S.W.

18th Rained heavily from S.W. in the night. Robertson went away. Showery all the morning. Fencers laid out the standards on the Waipara. I dug a little etc.

19th A fine bright day. Dug in the garden. In the evening Bell came from the scrub, & two of Forbes' drays with straining posts & standards. Fencers began putting up the standards.

20th Fencers went on putting up standards down the Waipara. Laid out wire with the dray in the afternoon. Carter & Little finished the fence round the house.

21st A beastly, mizzling day. Laid out the lines from the house to the Waipara & from the downs to the Waipara. Got a note from the Admiral asking me to dine tomorrow. Carter put down the floor in the hut.


22nd An infernal South Easter; walked over to Heathstock in spite of it. Tom McDonald there; the Admiral very fit.

23rd The Admiral wouldn't let me go, so I stopped all day, & read Tom Paine.

24th Half bought an old mare from M, which I rode back. Laid out standards from the Waipara to the peg above the house. Three drays came with standards, wire & posts. Letters from home.

25th Well, the Lord Lyon wins! Forbes has bought 80 acres next this section! Sent the dray to Mason for cow dung. In the evening two drays containing cases of machinery & timber & the water cart came up. The roads are awfully heavy.

26th Went & laid out the boundary on the downs. Bell laid the wire out on the downs near the house.

27th Set Mitchell & Co to put up the framework of the engine shed. Went on Dot & Go One to the Pass.

28th Went down to the creek & saw Cameron about the timber & came up again to Leithfield, & stayed there all night.


29th Started from Leithfield at 1 & got up to the Pass about 5. Stayed all night.

30th Came home at 12. Men finished putting up the engine shed. That fool Bell got stuck in the creek. Forbes & Robertson brought up a load of wire & one of the standards.

31st Forbes pulled my dray out of the creek. Rained heavily all day from the SW. Did nothing in consequence. R. Woofe came in the afternoon with another man.


1st Sent Bell to the scrub. Carter & Little finished the culvert and shaped at the mens' house. Woofe & Stevens put the anchors together. In the afternoon Belcher came with two loadsof cases.

2nd Beautiful day, but cold. Belcher went away; Carter & L plastered the rest of the mens' house. Bell came back about S.

3rd Another fine day. Bell laid out wire Carter & L`cobbed up the gable at the end of the house. Drove calves up the Pyramid Valley.

4th A fine Norwester. Bell laid out wires & posts; finished making a path. Carter & L made a fireplace in the mens' hut & put up a sod along the standards. Forbes' drays in the evening.


5th A cold Norwester. Men went down the river to look for coal; found some lignite. I did nothing!

6th Obliged to go to the creek again; went to the Pass & hired a horse . Got down at dusk.

7th Had to go to town; saw Louisson. Stayed at Club.

8th Went up to Kaiapoi. Had lunch & tea at Birch's & stayed at the Pier Hotel.

9th Went up to the creek & then had to go back to town.

10th Did nothing till the afternoon when I saw Louisson, and found that the stays were in port.

11th Went to port & got them brought over in a cart.


12th Beastly cold; stayed in bed till 2. Went to Coventry's in the evening; very seedy.

13th Started up by coach, and found Dick at the Pass. Walked over the same night.

14th Carter & Little went away; made a few household arrangements. Dick got Master Glubb. Sowed a few things in the garden.

15th Went on Glubb to the Pass with letters, & thence to Hunter's & Henry's, after spuds. Sent Mitchell & mates to the coal. Bell came back from the Pass.

16th Put some seeds in the garden. Then employed on the engine; in the afternoon Dick & I went to the coal. I'm afraid it won't do. Men came back.

17th Set the fencers to digging. In the afternoon Forbes came with two drays, with stays, posts & stores. That brute Glubb broke away.

18th Dick got Glubb back. Men went on fencing.


19th That infernal cuss, Glubb, pulled up a young post & got away again, curse him! Woofe went out and shot a pig.

20th Only two of the fencers up to time. Got the young wheel on the engine and the tank. Forbes' dray with a load of wire. Snowed at night.

21st Fencers finished up to the point above the house. Men variously employed; sent Bell & Stevens to the scrub. Sowed this house fence with gorse.

22nd Fine day. Commenced making a small gate. Bell came back from the scrub. Belcher came up the previous evening with the last of the cases & went away this morning. Forbes' two drays came with posts, coal & wire.

23rd Forbes' horses pulling the truck from under the boiler & then went away. Went on with my gate; getting on bravely with the engine. Dick & I killed two grey duck.

24th Mitchell finished the fencing up to the terrace. Forbes' two drays came with wire & standards. Letters from England, & the excellent Bell got the boiler on the frame alright.

25th A lovely day; engine getting on well. Mason called about some calves.


26th A spendid day, read Bell. Dick & I took a walk.

27th Another fine day. Put some gravel in front of the house. Fencers nearly up to the swamp. In the evening the thatch of the hut caught fire, & there was general panic, but as there was no wind & plenty of water & hands, it was soon put out.

28th A cold NorWester. Put down some more gravel. Jim bought Master Glubb over here. We tethered and hobbled him.

29th The engine approaching completion. Bell laid out posts etc.

30th A fine day. Got steam up in the engine. Everything satisfactory. Bell laid out fencing on the downs; Forbes' dray with rails etc. Dick & I put up a gate in the garden.

31st Rose on Glubb to Leithfield, where I met the Gaffer, with the intelligence that he had let his land. Went with him to town in the coach.


1st Did no end of business in the morning, with the Gaffer and others & played football in the evening. Went about with Bowler in the evening and slept at his house.


2nd Waited about and was laboriously idle and much bored.

3rd Came to Leithfield by coach, & rode up the rest of the way on Glubb. Got up about quarter to 6.

4th Shaped at getting the engine in form for getting into position, which we accomplished satisfactorily. Forbes brought up the posts and a few rails. Bell went to the Pass.

5th Another day without rain. Made everything ready for ploughing and ran the plough up and down once. Bell came back in the afternoon.

6th Commenced ploughing about 9. I went to Cowie's & the downs. Bought a cart horse from Cowie for ›39. When I came back they had a slight breakage in the drum & knocked off for the day. Fencers also knocked off; want to go to town.

7th Started on Glubb to town. Stayed all night at Kaiapoi, and had tea with M Birch.

8th Strong NorWester. Got to Christchurch by ten. Did a power of business. Dined at the Royal with Cherry. Rather a rowdy flutter.


9th Went about with Jim Selfe and S. Walker. To bed early.

10th Did a little business & started about 11. Went to Mrs. Carter's to see some sheep. Stayed all night. Music to the front.

11th Saw the sheep in the morning & rode up without any particular adventure.

12th The plough did a fair day's work, though I'm afraid we shan't do much above 3 acres until the ground gets softer. Ross & three slaveys came to see it. Forbes' dray came with the rails & the fencers came back. A slight NW shower.

13th Plough did another fair day's work. I sowed some bluegum. Bell laid out fencing; the fencers at work.

14th Finished the paddock by midday, and commenced harrowing about 41/2. The ground is very well broken up, only the roots are left on the top. Forbes came with standards. Generally bothered with the horses etc. Wrote to Willes about a scarifier & to Mrs. P.

15th Rode over to the Pass with the letters. Two dray loads of scrub came. Showery in the morning, which turned to steady rain in the afternoon. Did a little harrowing in the morning.


16th All the hands & the cook went out pig hunting & caught a sow. I rode over to Heathstock, but the Admiral wasn't on the spot.

17th Harrowed up to the fence. Bell laid out fencing. I sowed some gorse in the boundary fence.

18th Finished harrowing & made the necessary removal. That brute Baldy more trouble than she is worth. I shaped at making a bed for the gorse along the fence.

19th Out of meat, so rode to the Pass & got some. A strong Norwester. Ploughed a little; works decidedly better. Baldy worse than ever.

20th Jim came over with 21/2 sheep from the Pass. Went on ploughing until 12, when one of the brakes broke. Dick rode to the Hurunui to get it mended. Went a-digging peat in the afternoon.

21st Commenced carting water with Captain, but at his third load I'm dashed if he'd pull. Built a fire under him, to no purpose. Carter & Little came. In the evening a smart shower of rain. Forbes' dray came with posts etc.

22nd A blank day. Rained all night & most of the day. Managed to sow about 10 chains of gorse.


23rd A few showers in the morning. Dick & I took a long walk over the Razorstack. Macdonald called when we were out.

24th Rainy. Went to the Pass for the mail. It rained so everlasting hard that I stopped there all night.

25th Still raining. Came home. The Isler at the turf; other hands variously employed.

26th Still raining. Hands employed as before. A man came about grazing cattle.

27th Made a drain from the mens' hut. Evans called. No drays. Bell laid out posts etc. Showery all day.

28th A fine warm day. Went on draining etc. Sowed grass in the afternoon & had a fine chivvy sfter some pigs in the swamp.

29th Went out with a gun after the pigs, but couldn't find them. Sowed gorse in the afternoon. No dray. Bell came back with standards.


30th Did nothing in the morning. Had a walk up the Doctor's hill in the afternoon.


1st Bell laid out fencing. I worked in the garden. F. Woofe went over to the Hurunui to get a pin mended. In the evening Grantham came & stopped all night. Rather wet.

2nd Grantham went away. I rode over yo Heathstock to see Barff about his cattle. Went a-bobbing in the evening, but caught nothing.

3rd Rained slightly during the ay. Very poorly, so stayed abed. In the evening, to my infinite astonishment, who should come up but Occy & Nathan after some land.

4th Raining again. Dirk went to the Pass with letters. I went out with Occy to show him the land. He selected one bit & went in the afternoon to measure it. In the evening, two drays with coals at last.

5th Gaffer went away to town and Nathan stayed. Commenced ploughing again. Several stoppages & accidents, but did about an acre. It is working decidedly better. At last the fencers have finished the wire part of the fence. Raining again.

6th Nathan & Dick got Captain & the old mare. I took his billet at the engine.


7th Dick & Nathan went to the top of the Doctor's hills. Some went a pig hunting. I carefully did nothing.

8th Ploughing going on pretty well. Nathan sowed some oats. Went round the house measuring . Sent Bell to the scrub with the stanchions.

9th Had to go after Boxer. Nathan rode him & the mare & Toby in & drove all strangers out. Ploughing interrupted by the lack of water & that dashed coiler. Bell came back alive & the Baron's two drays also. Finished measuring the fence & Nathan sowed more oats.

10th Norwester. Forbes' drays went. Nathan harrowed the oats with Captain & Baldy. Ploughed all day. T. Macdonald & Barugh called. Put in some spuds.

11th A most infernal Norwester. Ploughed for about two hours. The rest of the day was spent in shifting. Ashwoth's dray came with coals. Stuck Irishman on one of the gates & put in spuds.

12th Went & paddied the other gate. In the afternoon, the Baron came with lime & three bags of coal. Ploughing all day. Killed two pigs in the swamp.

13th Went to the Yeomen of the Guard about their pigs. Ploughing all day. Skinned the pigs. Sowed a little grass seed & put in spuds. Bell brought a roller from Cowie's.


14th Dick went to the Admiral's on Glubb. I did nothing.

15th Norwester. Bell went to Heathstock for a barrow machine. Put spuds in in the morning & sowed grass in the afternoon. Nathan went to the Pass for letters. Ploughed till 3, when there was a breakage.

16th Norwester. F. Woofe went to the blacksmiths on Glubb & didn't come back. I put spuds in etc. Had part of the mens' hut whitewashed. Jim came with two sheep. Woofe at the engine.

17th I went to Leithfield on Glubb, and thence to town in the coach. Went to the Club. Saw Stevens. My birthday of 24.

18th Did a lot of shopping & other business in the morning, & in the evening we started to the Rakaia in a special coach to play cricket. Got there aboutr 12.

19th Commenced early. They went in & got 55. We got 107. I got 36. They got 41 with two wickets down. Had a brave feed in the evening.

20th Finished the match; we winning by 8 wickets. I got 'not out' 9. Started at 5, when the coach upset. One man's arm broke, another's leg & all hurt. Had a turn up with the driver. Got to town in another conveyance by 11. Slept at the Royal.


21st Lay in bed most of the day. Very seedy & shaken.

22nd Still very stiff; did nothing much. Campbell dined with me at the Club.

23rd Left town by coach. Went to Mrs. Carter's with Benn to see the sheep. Stayed there all night. A lot of ladies.

24th Started up here & arrived about 3. Went over with Occy to his new abode. His first load of things came up. The ploughing seems to have gone on well in my absence.

25th Ploughing all day. Mitchell did a little at the paddock fence & then went for an auger. B. M. charred posts. Went over to see the gaffer in the afternoon.

26th Mitchell & Co commenced putting up the sheepyard. An obnoxious man called Bell came last night, & stopped till midday. Finished the bit they were ploughing, & laid out a fresh bit. Bell came back from scrub.

27th Ploughing all day. Mitchell & Co at sheepyard. I took some of the peat in a wheelbarrow on to terra firma. DÄÄd Norwester all the week.


28th Poured with rain all day, so, of course, stayed indoors.

29th Cloudy with occasional small rain. Found something wrong with the engine, which was probably cause of delay. Did no ploughing. Got the cow in and milked here.

30th Milked her again; getting quieter. Did a day's ploughing, but found we must knock off.

31st Woofe & his men fanoodled about the engine. Two sheep from the Pass. Dick rode over there.


1st Woofe, Mr. McGill, the two Mitchells, Dick & Nathan all went away, some for one thing but the others, indeed, for something else. I did a little plastering; Men cobbed the kitchen. Bell & Stevens to the scrub. Gaffer came to sleep.

2nd All hands & the cook employed in cobbing & plastering in the house.

3rd Same. No Dick. Norwest showers.


4th Dick & Nathan came with the sheep about 12. Went over to the Gaffer's in the afternoon.

5th Dick plastered his room. Killed two sheep. Norwester.

6th Dick finished his room; dug out a foundation for the stable. Sou'Wester in the evening.

7th Dick & I went on plastering the sitting room. Stevens shaped at the stable. Woofe came about 8 1/2.

8th Went on with the ploughing about 10. I plastered etc. Nathan took Baldy & Captain away to sell.

9th Cold from S.W. Ploughed all day and finished the piece. Finished the sitting room.

10th Got the mob in & killed two. In the afternoon, I whitewashed & went round the boundary. Ploughed a little in the morning & spent the rest of the day in shifting.


11th A fine rain all night & warm, growing day. The Gaffer came over to dine & sleep.

12th Ploughed all day. Dick rode over with Glubb & the mare to meet Stevens, who, indeed, came. Fit.

13th Ploughed all day. Faked about all day. Carter & Little came over. Gave them the stable contract. DÄÄd Norwester.

14th Stevens & I rode down to Leithfield, to the races. Poorish fun. Stayed all night. Tom Niblett to the front.

15th Rode to town with Stevens. Attended Committee - very slow.

16th Rode to Mrs Carter's to brand the sheep. Rained too hard. Bade there all night; had a hop in the evening.

17th Rode up home. Raining on & off. Couldn't brand the sheep. Got home about six.


18th Walked to the Gaffer's, who walked back with us. Did nothing carefully.

19th Ploughed after ten. Dug in the garden etc. Carter commenced the stable.

20th Ploughing all day. A reporter from the "LYTTLETON TIMES" came & stopped all night. Went over to the Gaffer's.


21st The bloke stayed all day & night. Ploughed all day & then shifted to cross what has been done. Norwester.

22nd Fine warm day. Employed in shifting tackle etc. Threatened rain in the evening. Dick finished plastering my room & re-whitewashed the sitting room.

23rd Commenced crossing the ploughed land, but did not do much, owing to the rope breaking. I commenced papering the sitting room.

24th A lovely day. They broke the brake twice today. I went on papering.


25th Rode to Heathstock with Dick. Stayed till 7 1/2. Bishop etc there.

26th All the paper peeling off again. DÄÄd bore. West to the Pass for letters. No news from home particularly. The Lyon wins.

27th Hot. Beastly lazy, didn't do much at all. Nathan went to the Hurunui to get the horses shod. Ploughing going on satisfactorily.

28th Coiler broke. Went on without it. Fine day. Working about the place.

29th Went to Leithfield & on by Cobb's coach, to Christchurch. Attended Committee Meeting.

30th Shaped at cricket all day. Made two ones & was beastly unlucky.


1st Wet. Played at cricket in the afternoon. Very slow. Songs in the evening at Tatt's.


2nd Went to Kohler's & other places of worship.

3rd Left town & went up to Mrs. O'Connell's, where I stayed all night.

4th Raining like fury; stayed all day. Hottish fun this, mate!

5th Same!

6th Fine day. Played croquet with the ladies & ate fruit like a man.

7th Norwester. Came home. Rode to Leithfield with Russell & Mrs. Withnall.

8th Raining all day. No ploughing. Nathan & Bell went to the scrub.


9th Raining again. Lay abed all day.

10th Too wet for ploughing. A lovely day. Set all hands to sod fencing. John to the Pass with letters.

11th Still too wet. Still sod fencing. Forbes came late last night with coal. Very hot. Nathan & Bell went to the scrub.

12th Both returned. Went on ploughing. Did a little & shifted. Still very hot. Went over to Gaffer's.

13th Hotter than ever. This afternoon that cursed brake went again. Sent John with it. Ashworth's two drays with coal.

14th Set the men at cleaning out a place for a bridge across the creek. Forbes' drays in the afternoon.

15th Rained nearly all day. Ploughed till three. Papered part of my room.


16th Fine-ish day. Did nothing much. Played cricket in the evening.

17th Norwester. Ploughed in the afternoon. Nasthan & I got stones for the bridge.

18th Horses broke the lower gate & some got out, but with the help of Providence, we got ours in & other people's out. Rained all the rest of the day. Ploughed a little in the morning.

19th Another cursed misty day. Got three loads of stonesfrom the P.W. Plough going all day.

20th Forbes' drays with coal. Gloomy all day. Carter finished the stable. Got three loads of stone.

21st Norwester. Carter shaped at the culvert over the creek. Got 1 load of stone. Ploughed & shifted.

22nd Ploughed all day. Got three loads of stone. Carter finished the kitchen & went away. Heavy thunder showers in the afternoon.


23rd Sou'Wester all day, consequently stayed in the house.

24th Tolerably fine. John, Stevens & Harry went to the Pass. We did a little about the place.

25th Xmas Day. General holiday. Had a dinner party in the evening, Woofe & son, & R.O.H. Lots of lush. Dick got squiffy.

26th Fine day. Ploughed in the afternoon. Dick went to the Pass for letters. One from A & E. (SEE NOTE BELOW) Forbes' drays with coal & timber.

27th Fine day with NW wind. Ploughed all day. Harry came back in the afternoon.

28th Same sort of day. Shifted in the morning & in the afternoon some d____d small thing broke, which stopped us.

29th Left for Christchurch on Glubb. Got down about 4 1/2. Went to the cricket ground, & in the evening fluttered about Coventry. Stayed at Madras St.


30th Breakfasted with Back & Coventry. Went to Kohler's in the afternoon. Slept at Coventry's.

31st Practised cricket in the afternoon. Played whist in the evening & stayed at Tatt's.


Arthur L. Powys had two younger sisters, (dates of birth unrecorded), but who would have been very young in 1866, the year of this Journal. They would presumably have been living at home at the Rectory at Tichmarsh.

EVELYN MARY, the elder sister, married Edward Pennefather Wade-Brown, on 19th October 1869. She died 4th March, 1934.

ALICE ELIZABETH, the younger sister, married Frederick Armine Wodehouse. Rector of Gotham, co. Nottingham, on 7th September, 1880. She died 7th March, 1934. The letter from "A & E" could well have been Christmas greeings from his two little sisters.

PORT LYTTLETON, otherwise known as Port Victoria, stands at the head of Lyttleton Harbour, and was the main port for the capital, CHRISTCHURCH, to which it was joined, by 1866, by road, rail and telegraph. Was the port named for some relative of Arthur LYTTLETON Powys? Was this a reason for his settling in the Christchurch region?

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